GERUNDS & INFINITIVES

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GERUNDS & INFINITIVES

1  
Gerunds
1.1   
Gerunds As The Subject Of The Sentence
1.2   
Gerunds As The Object Of A Preposition
1.2.1   
Verb + Preposition
1.2.2   
Verb + Object + Preposition
1.2.3   
To Be + Adjective + Preposition
1.2.4   
To Be + Noun + Preposition
1.3   
Gerunds As The Object Of A Verb
1.3.1   
Verb + Gerund

2  
Infinitives
2.1   
Infinitives As The Subject Of The Sentence
2.2   
Infinitives As The Object Of The Verb
2.2.1  
Verb + Infinitive
2.2.2  
Verb + (Pro)noun + Infinitive

3  
Gerunds Or Infinitives?
3.1   
Verb + Infinitive = Verb + Gerund
3.2   
Verb + Infinitive ¹ Verb + Gerund

1  GERUNDS
A GERUND is a verb in its "ing" form (the present participle); for example, raining, dancing, laughing, thinking, creating, running, and so on.
By definition, they are activities . either physical or mental.
These words function as NOUNS in a sentence:


The subject of the verb:          Swimming is a lot of fun and good exercise.
The object of the verb:            I really like
swimming.
The object of a preposition:   I am looking forward to
swimming in the ocean.

1.1  GERUNDS AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE
Any activity that can be expressed with the "ing" form of a verb can be the subject of a sentence.
All gerunds can be the subject of a sentence.

Breathing is necessary.
Driving a car requires good vision.
Helping other people feels good.

1.2  GERUNDS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
Prepositions (for, with, about, &) must be followed by an object.
The object can be a noun or a gerund (a verb acting as a noun).

I am tired of waking up too early.
I look forward
to meeting your friend.
I am interested
in learning baseball.
She is responsible
for implementing new policy.

1.2.1    Verb + Preposition
Here are some verbs plus a preposition followed by a gerund
to complain about __________ing
to
insist on __________ing
to
participate in __________ing
to
apologize for __________ing
to
object to __________ing
to
look forward to __________ing
to
think of __________ing
to
win by __________ing
to
take part in __________ing


1.2.2    Verb + Object + Preposition
Here are some verbs plus an object plus a preposition followed by a gerund
to have difficulty in __________ing
to
take advantage of __________ing
to
have a good reason for __________ing
to
prevent someone from __________ing
to
keep someone from __________ing
to
stop someone from __________ing
to
thank someone for __________ing
to b
lame someone for __________ing
to
accuse someone of __________ing
to
charge someone with __________ing
to
fine someone for __________ing


1.2.3     To Be + Adjective + Preposition 
Here are some combinations of the verb "to be" plus an adjective plus a preposition followed by a gerund
to be accustomed to __________ing
to
be interested in __________ing
to
be excited about __________ing
to
be capable of __________ing
to
be responsible for __________ing
to
be used to __________ing
to
be tired of __________ing
to
be bored with __________ing
to
be good for __________ing
to
be good at __________ing
to
be bad at __________ing
to
be guilty of __________ing

1.2.4  To Be + Noun + Preposition  
Here are some combinations of the verb "to be" plus an object plus a preposition followed by a gerund:  
to be a victim of __________ing
to
be an advocate of __________ing
to
be a believer in __________ing
to
be a supporter of __________ing
to
be a critic of __________ing

1.3  GERUNDS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB
When it comes to gerunds as the object of a verb, not all verbs are equal.
That is, some verbs can take a gerund as their objects, but other verbs cannot.
(Some verbs can take infinitives as their objects. Some verbs never take an object at all.)
These differences can only be learned, as individual vocabulary items.




1.3.1 Verb + Gerund: 
Here are some verbs that are followed by a gerund.
(These verbs can be followed by any gerund. The gerunds used in these sentences are only examples.)
   
I admit losing the combination to the safe.
I
advise finding a good lawyer.
I don't
anticipate waiting very much longer.
I
appreciate hearing a good joke.
I
avoid flying as much as I can.
Would you
consider selling your share of the company?
We will
delay signing an agreement.
I
deny saying that.
We must
discuss hiring more people.
I
dislike eating alone.
I
enjoy talking with new people.
I
fear losing his confidence.
When I
finish typing this, I'll help you.
I
gave up explaining my position to them.
I often
go dancing.
I can't
help thinking that we could have done better.
I can't
imagine spending that much money.
Business trips
involve waiting in airports and staying in hotels.
They
keep saying that, but they don't do anything about it.
Did I
mention seeing him yesterday?
I don't
mind working on the weekend.
I will
miss seeing you around.
They
postponed starting construction until next year.
You should
practice using set phrases.
I
quit smoking six years ago.
I
recall meeting him a long time ago.
I don't
recollect being there.
I
recommend having the New York steak.
I
resent having to sign in each morning.
I couldn't
resist telling them.
We should not
risk losing their trust.
I hope they
stop making so much noise so I can get some sleep.
He
suggested starting my own agency.
They won't
tolerate trading insider information.

2   INFINITIVES
An infinitive may exist with or without the word "to". 
For example, following modal verbs (can, may, must, ... ).

Infinitives with the word "to" can function as either the SUBJECT or the OBJECT of a verb.
2.1 INFINITIVES AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE

To read a good book is my favorite form of relaxation.
To win
means everything to him.
To speak a foreign language well requires practice.

2.2 INFINITIVES AS THE OBJECT OF THE VERB
Most people like to win.I don't want to go.
We don't
need to fight like this.


2.2.1 Verb + Infinitive
Here are some verbs that are followed by an infinitive.
(These verbs can be followed by any infinitive. The infinitives used in these sentences are only examples.)
   
We can't afford to remain outside the market.
Should we
agree to buy from them?
It
appears to be a mistake.
I will
arrange to talk with them as soon as possible.
I
asked to see the manager about it.
I
beg to differ with you, sir.
Would you
care to try a California wine?
They
claim to make the best potato chips in the world.
We will never
consent to allow your name to be put on our product.
Finally, I
decided to do it myself.
I
demand to know who is responsible for this!
He
deserves to get a promotion.
She
expects to hire an apprentice.
Do not
fail to let us know your decision.
If you have trouble, don't
hesitate to call us for help.
We
hope to begin by next week.
I
intend to go home early.
He
learned to speak English as a child.
You
managed to overlook something.
Did you
mean to put my report in the waste basket?
I
need to talk to an expert.
They
offered to buy the rest from us.
We
plan to expand our product range.
Are you
prepared to explain this disaster?
I don. t
pretend to know all the answers.
I
promise to do my best.
He
refuses to answer my calls.
He
seems to be the one who is in charge.
We
had to struggle to open the window.
Do you
swear to keep this a secret?
They
threatened to sue us if we didn't pay their fee.
No one
volunteered to clean up after the picnic.
I cannot
wait to see the expression on his face when he hears the news.
I
want to find the right person for this job.
I do not
wish to be a part of your scheme.


2.2.2  Verb + Pronoun/Noun + Infinitive
Here are some verbs plus an indirect object followed by an  infinitive.
(These verbs can be followed by any infinitive. The infinitives used in these sentences are only examples.)   

I would advise you to say nothing about this.
Will you
allow me to use your telephone?
She
asked me to help her with her car.
He
begged me to let him come along.
The weather
caused us to take a later flight.
He
challenged me to find an error in his figures.
We must
convince them to investigate the situation.
I
dare you to tell him what you told me.
I
encouraged her to continue with the task.
He e
xpects you to finish on time.
I
forbid you to use that tone of voice with me.
They
forced him to reveal his source.
We should
hire someone to run our photocopying operation.
I
instructed them to wait for us here.
I
invited John to take part in our discussion.
I
need you to tell me what is going on here.
My boss
ordered me to go to London last week.
We
permitted them to talk to our client.
He
persuaded her to listen to his problem.
He
reminded me to bring an umbrella.
This situation
requires us to be very cautious.
The experience
taught me to buckle my seat belt.
He
told me to take two aspirins and go to bed.
She
urged me to take the job.
I
want you to wash my car.
He
warned me not to drive too fast around here.

3  GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES?
Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive.
Sometimes, there is no difference in meaning.
Sometimes there is.


3.1  VERB + INFINITIVE   =    VERB + GERUND


 
 

These verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, with NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING.

He began to shout.

He started to shout.

He continued to shout.

I like to read.

I love to read.

I prefer to read.

I hate to wait.

I can't stand to wait.

I can't bear to wait.

=

=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
He began shouting.
He started shouting.
He continued shouting.
I like reading.
I love reading.
I prefer reading.
I hate waiting.
I can't stand waiting.
I can't bear waiting.

3.2   VERB + INFINITIVE   ¹   VERB + GERUND
Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, but THEIR MEANINGS ARE NOT THE SAME:

I will remember to call her. (I will be sure to call her in the future.)

I remember calling her.(I have the memory of calling her in the past.)

I will not forget to meet him. (I will be sure to meet him in the future.)
I will never forget meeting them. (I will not lose the memory of meeting them.)

I regret to say he is not here. (I am sorry I must tell you he is not here.)
I regret saying it. (I am sorry I said it.)

I will try to ring the bell. (I will see if it is possible to ring the bell.)
I will try ringing the bell. (I will ring the bell to see if it will help the situation.)

I stopped to smoke at ten o. clock. (I interrupted an activity and had a cigarette.)
I stopped smoking a year ago. (I ended my cigarette habit.)
 

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